June 20, 2024
Vision Tests

Our vision is a crucial sense that influences every aspect of our lives, from reading and driving to recognizing faces and appreciating the beauty around us. Ensuring that our eyes are healthy and functioning correctly is vital, which is where vision tests come in. Whether it’s a routine check-up, diagnosing an issue, or updating a prescription, vision tests play a key role in maintaining eye health. In this blog, we’ll explore the various types of vision tests and what each one measures.

Visual Acuity Tests

Visual acuity tests are designed to measure the clarity or sharpness of your vision, helping to determine how well you can see at various distances. Let’s explore each of these tests in detail:

Snellen Chart

The Snellen Chart is perhaps the most recognized vision test. You’ve likely seen this chart, with its rows of letters decreasing in size, in your eye doctor’s office. During the test, you stand 20 feet away and read aloud the smallest line of letters you can see. The results are given as a fraction, such as 20/20 vision, indicating that you can see clearly at 20 feet what a person with normal vision can see at the same distance.

LogMAR Chart

While the Snellen Chart is common, the LogMAR Chart is gaining popularity, especially in research settings. The Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (LogMAR) chart offers a more precise measurement of visual acuity. Unlike the Snellen Chart, the LogMAR Chart spaces its letters evenly and adjusts for the spacing and size of the letters, providing a more accurate assessment. This test is particularly useful for tracking vision changes over time.

Refraction Tests

Refraction tests are crucial for determining the correct prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses by measuring how light bends as it passes through your eye. Let’s delve into two common types of refraction tests:

Automated Refraction

Automated refraction uses a machine called an autorefractor. You look into the machine, which measures how light changes as it enters your eye. This test is quick and provides an estimate of your prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses. It’s especially useful as a starting point for determining the appropriate prescription.

Manual Refraction (Phoropter)

For a more precise measurement, manual refraction is conducted using a phoropter. This device looks like a large, complicated pair of binoculars. During the test, your eye doctor will ask you to look through the phoropter and read letters on a chart. They’ll change lenses in front of your eyes and ask which lenses make the letters clearer. This process fine-tunes your prescription, ensuring optimal vision correction.


Keratometry assesses the curvature of your cornea, the transparent front surface of your eye. During a keratometry test, you’ll look into a keratometer while a light is shone onto your cornea. The device measures how the light reflects off your cornea, providing precise data on its curvature. This information helps your eye care professional determine the best contact lens fit for your eyes and diagnose conditions that affect corneal shape, such as keratoconus.

Peripheral Vision Tests

Peripheral vision tests assess your ability to see objects outside your direct line of sight, providing important information about the health and function of your visual field. Let’s explore two common types of peripheral vision tests:

Confrontation Visual Field Test

This simple, in-office test assesses your peripheral vision, the ability to see objects outside your direct line of sight. Your eye doctor will sit in front of you, covering one eye at a time, and ask you to look straight ahead. They’ll then move their hand from the outside of your visual field toward the center and ask you to indicate when you can see it. This basic test can help identify significant peripheral vision loss.

Automated Perimetry

For a more detailed assessment, automated perimetry is used. This test involves looking into a machine while keeping your eyes fixed on a central point. Small lights will flash in your peripheral vision, and you’ll press a button when you see them. Machines like the Humphrey Field Analyzer create a detailed map of your peripheral vision, detecting conditions like glaucoma and other optic nerve diseases.

Color Vision Tests

Color vision tests are designed to evaluate your ability to distinguish between different colors, providing insights into the health and function of your color vision. Let’s explore two common types of color vision tests:

Ishihara Test

The Ishihara Test is the most common test for color blindness. It consists of a series of plates with dots of various colors and sizes. Within these dots, numbers or shapes are embedded in a different color. If you have normal color vision, you’ll be able to see the numbers or shapes. However, if you have color blindness, particularly red-green deficiencies, you may not see them.

Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test

For a more comprehensive assessment of color vision, the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test is used. During this test, you’ll be asked to arrange colored caps in order of hue. The test measures your ability to distinguish between subtle color differences, providing detailed information about your color vision. This test is often used in specialized settings, such as occupational health, to determine if a person can distinguish fine color variations required in certain jobs.

Depth Perception Tests

Depth perception tests assess your ability to perceive the relative distances of objects in three-dimensional space, providing valuable insights into your spatial awareness and visual coordination. Let’s explore the common type of depth perception test:

Stereopsis Tests

Depth perception tests, also known as stereopsis tests, measure how well your eyes work together to perceive depth. One common test is the Titmus fly test, where you wear 3D glasses and look at a series of images. You’ll be asked to identify which images appear to be closer or farther away. Another example is the Randot stereotest, which involves identifying shapes that stand out from a background pattern. These tests are crucial for activities requiring precise depth perception, such as driving and sports.

Slit Lamp Examination

A slit lamp examination provides detailed insights into eye health, focusing on the front structures. Using a specialized microscope with intense light, your eye doctor examines the eyelids, cornea, iris, and lens. This thorough inspection detects issues like corneal abrasions, cataracts, and iris defects early on. Essential for diagnosing and monitoring eye conditions, slit lamp exams are especially vital for those with eye problems or at risk for diseases like diabetic retinopathy.


Tonometry is a vital test that measures the pressure inside your eye. Let’s explore two common types of tonometry:

Applanation Tonometry

Applanation tonometry measures intraocular pressure (IOP), which is crucial for detecting glaucoma. During this test, an anesthetic drop is applied to your eye, and a small probe gently touches the cornea to measure the pressure. The force required to flatten a small area of your cornea is used to determine the IOP. This method is also helpful in glaucoma monitoring.

Non-contact Tonometry (Puff Test)

For those who may find applanation tonometry uncomfortable, non-contact tonometry is an alternative. Often referred to as the “puff test,” this method involves a quick puff of air directed at your eye. The machine measures the cornea’s resistance to the puff of air, determining the IOP. While it’s less precise than applanation tonometry, it’s useful for initial screenings and is more comfortable for many patients.

Retinal Examination

Retinal examination allows eye care professionals to assess the health of the retina, optic disc, and blood vessels at the back of the eye. Let’s explore two common methods of retinal examination:


Ophthalmoscopy, also known as funduscopy, allows the eye doctor to examine the retina, optic disc, and blood vessels at the back of the eye. There are two main types: direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. In direct ophthalmoscopy, the doctor uses a small handheld device with a light and a magnifying lens to look into your eye. Indirect ophthalmoscopy uses a head-mounted device, allowing a wider view of the retina. This test is essential for detecting retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test that uses light waves to take cross-sectional pictures of your retina. During the test, you’ll look into the OCT machine while it scans your eye. The detailed images produced by OCT allow the doctor to see each of the retina’s layers, helping diagnose and manage conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.

Additional Specialized Tests

In addition to standard vision tests, certain specialized tests provide detailed insights into specific aspects of eye health and function.

Electroretinography (ERG)

Electroretinography (ERG) measures the electrical responses of the retina’s light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) to visual stimuli. During the test, electrodes are placed on your cornea and skin around your eye. You’ll then be exposed to flashes of light, and the electrical responses are recorded. ERG is particularly useful for diagnosing inherited retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, and assessing retinal function in other conditions.

Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)

Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) tests measure the electrical activity in the vision system from the eyes to the brain. Electrodes are placed on your scalp, and you’ll look at a screen displaying a pattern or flash of light. The VEP measures the speed and strength of the electrical signals as they travel from your eyes to your visual cortex. This test helps diagnose conditions affecting the optic nerve, such as optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis.


Regular vision tests are essential for maintaining eye health and detecting issues early. From assessing visual acuity to diagnosing retinal diseases, these tests provide invaluable information about your eyes. Regular exams help maintain good vision and catch potential problems before they become serious. If you’re due for a vision test or have concerns about your eye health, schedule an appointment with Skipper Eye-Q Super Speciality Eye Hospital. Our experienced ophthalmologists and advanced facilities ensure comprehensive and personalized eye care. Don’t wait—visit Skipper Eye-Q today and take the first step towards maintaining healthy vision. Trust your eyes to the best care possible.

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Oluremi Ashaolu

Hello everyone at skipper Eye q Skipper eye q is a place to be, they’re so kind and understanding especially the receptionist she was so helpful when I came for my son’s test and operation, God bless you all

Rossy Jolaoluwa

Great hospital my surgery was successful I have been discharged. All thanks to skipper and My lovely and beautiful Dr Okunade. I’m really happy

Joy Makanjuola

I did my surgery last year at the ilupeju branch, at first I was scared at first but after the surgery I didn’t regret it. Thank you Dr Okunade,very excellent Doctor.

June 18, 2024
Common Types of Vision Tests Related According To Age

Vision is a crucial part of our overall health, yet many of us take it for granted until we encounter problems. Regular vision tests are essential because they help detect issues early, making treatments more effective. This blog will explore the common types of vision tests across different age groups, highlighting why they are necessary and what each test involves.

Vision Tests for Infants and Toddlers

Vision development in infants and toddlers is rapid and crucial for their overall growth. Detecting vision problems early can prevent long-term issues and support proper development. Regular eye check-ups ensure that any congenital issues, like cataracts or strabismus, are identified and treated promptly.

Some common tests for infants and toddlers are:

Pupil Response Test

This test checks how well the pupils respond to light, which is crucial for identifying potential neurological issues. During the exam, the doctor shines a small light into the child’s eyes and closely observes the pupils’ reactions. The pupils should constrict (get smaller) in response to light and dilate (get larger) when the light is removed. This reflex helps to determine if the optic nerve and brain pathways involved in vision are functioning properly. Any abnormal response might indicate underlying issues that need further investigation.

Fixate and Follow Test

In this test, the child is asked to focus on and follow a moving object with their eyes, such as a toy or a light. The doctor will move the object in various directions to see if the child can smoothly follow it with both eyes. This test assesses the child’s ability to maintain visual attention and track objects, which are essential skills for visual development. It helps identify any early signs of strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) or other issues with eye coordination and movement.

Preferential Looking Test

This test involves showing the child various patterns, such as stripes or dots, and observing their visual preference. Infants and toddlers tend to look longer at more interesting or complex patterns. By measuring how long the child looks at each pattern, the doctor can estimate their visual acuity. This method is particularly useful for young children who cannot yet verbalize what they see. The test helps detect early visual impairment and ensures that the child’s vision is developing as expected.

Vision Tests for Preschoolers

As children grow, their vision needs to evolve. Preschoolers need vision tests to ensure they are developing correctly and to catch any early signs of issues that could affect learning and development.

Some common tests for preschoolers are:

Visual Acuity Tests

These tests typically use pictures or letter charts. During the test, the child is asked to identify objects or letters at varying distances. The purpose is to determine how clearly the child can see at different ranges, which is crucial for activities such as reading and recognizing faces. Visual acuity tests help identify refractive errors like nearsightedness or farsightedness early, ensuring timely intervention with corrective lenses if needed.

Color Vision Tests

Early detection of color blindness is important as it can impact learning and daily activities. Simple tests, often involving colored dots arranged in specific patterns, help identify any difficulties a child may have in distinguishing between different colors. For example, the Ishihara test presents a series of colored plates with embedded numbers or shapes. Identifying issues early allows for adaptations in learning environments, ensuring children can engage fully in educational activities.

Stereoacuity Test

This test assesses depth perception, which is the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and judge the distance of objects. Children might be asked to wear special glasses and look at 3D images or patterns. During the test, the child’s ability to discern depth differences between objects is evaluated. Ensuring proper depth perception is important for activities requiring hand-eye coordination, like catching a ball or navigating around obstacles.

Vision Tests for School-Age Children

Good vision is essential for academic success. Vision problems can interfere with reading, writing, and classroom participation. Regular vision tests for school-age children ensure they can perform their best at school.

Some common tests for school-age children are:

Snellen Chart

This classic eye chart test involves reading letters of decreasing size from a specific distance. It helps determine the clarity of vision and can identify issues like nearsightedness or farsightedness, indicating if corrective glasses or further tests are needed.

Cover Test

The cover test detects strabismus or eye misalignment. The doctor asks the child to focus on an object while covering one eye at a time. They observe if the uncovered eye shifts to focus, indicating misalignment. This helps identify if an eye turns inward, outward, upward, or downward, which can affect depth perception and cause other vision issues if untreated.

Refraction Test

This test determines the prescription for glasses or contact lenses by measuring how light bends in the eye. The child looks through a phoropter, and the optometrist switches lenses to find the clearest vision. This helps identify the correct lens strength needed to correct issues like nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism. Accurate refraction ensures children have a clear vision for school and daily activities.

Vision Tests for Adults

For adults, regular eye exams are crucial for maintaining vision health and catching any developing issues. As we age, our eyes are susceptible to various conditions that can impact our quality of life.

Some common tests for adults are:

Visual Acuity Tests

These are the standard tests to check the clarity of vision. During this test, adults are asked to read letters of varying sizes on a chart placed at a specific distance. The most commonly used chart is the Snellen chart, which has letters that get progressively smaller. This test helps determine the sharpness of vision at a distance and can indicate the need for corrective lenses.

Refraction Tests

Updating prescriptions for glasses or contacts is necessary as vision can change over time. The refraction test helps determine the exact lens power needed for clear vision. During this test, the eye doctor places a series of lenses in front of the eyes and asks which ones make the vision clearer. This process helps pinpoint the precise prescription required for optimal vision correction. It’s an essential test for anyone experiencing vision changes, ensuring that glasses or contacts provide the best possible clarity and comfort.

Glaucoma Test

This test measures eye pressure to detect glaucoma, a condition that can lead to blindness if untreated. One common method is the “puff test,” where a quick puff of air is blown into the eye to measure intraocular pressure. Another method involves using a tonometer, a device that gently touches the eye to measure pressure. Elevated eye pressure can damage the optic nerve, so regular glaucoma tests are crucial for early detection and management of this potentially sight-threatening condition.

Retinal Examination

The retina is examined for signs of diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or macular degeneration. This examination often involves dilating the pupils with special eye drops to allow a comprehensive view of the back of the eye. Using an ophthalmoscope or specialized camera, the eye doctor can look for abnormalities in the retina and optic nerve. Detecting issues like retinal detachment, tears, or signs of systemic diseases early is critical for timely treatment and prevention of severe vision impairment.

Vision Tests for Seniors

As we age, our vision changes significantly. Conditions like cataracts, macular degeneration, and glaucoma become more common. Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and management of these issues.

Some common tests for seniors are:

Amsler Grid Test

The Amsler Grid Test is a simple yet effective method for detecting macular degeneration. During this test, patients are asked to focus on a dot in the center of a grid made up of horizontal and vertical lines. While looking at the dot, they should note any distortions, such as lines appearing wavy, blurry, or missing altogether. These distortions can indicate changes in the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision.


Tonometry is a crucial test for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP), which is essential in detecting glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness. During the test, a device gently presses against the eye or uses a puff of air to measure the pressure inside the eye. Elevated IOP can damage the optic nerve, leading to vision loss if untreated.

Dilated Eye Exam

A dilated eye exam provides a comprehensive evaluation of the eye’s internal structures, essential for detecting a variety of conditions. During the exam, eye drops are used to widen the pupils, allowing the eye doctor to thoroughly examine the retina, optic nerve, and blood vessels. This detailed view helps in diagnosing issues like retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and other retinal conditions. The dilation typically lasts a few hours, during which patients may experience light sensitivity and blurred vision.

General Tips for Maintaining Eye Health

Here are some practical tips to help you maintain optimal eye health throughout your life.

  • Nutrition: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids supports eye health.
  • Protective Eyewear: Wearing sunglasses that block UV rays and safety glasses during activities that could harm your eyes is important.
  • Regular Check-Ups: Even if you think your vision is fine, regular check-ups can catch problems early when they’re most treatable.
  • When to See an Eye Doctor: Sudden vision changes, persistent pain in the eyes, flashes of light, or floaters are signs that you should see an eye doctor immediately. Early intervention can prevent serious issues.


Regular vision tests are vital at every stage of life. They help ensure proper visual development in children, support academic performance in school-age kids, maintain eye health in adults, and detect age-related conditions in seniors. By staying on top of eye exams, we can address vision problems early and keep our eyes healthy throughout our lives.

For comprehensive eye care tailored to your needs, consider scheduling an appointment at Skipper Eye-Q Super Speciality Eye Hospital. Our team of expert ophthalmologists and state-of-the-art facilities ensure you receive the best care at every stage of your life. Prioritize your vision health today by booking your eye exam with us. Your eyes deserve the best!

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Our Doctors

Oluremi Ashaolu

Hello everyone at skipper Eye q Skipper eye q is a place to be, they’re so kind and understanding especially the receptionist she was so helpful when I came for my son’s test and operation, God bless you all

Rossy Jolaoluwa

Great hospital my surgery was successful I have been discharged. All thanks to skipper and My lovely and beautiful Dr Okunade. I’m really happy

Joy Makanjuola

I did my surgery last year at the ilupeju branch, at first I was scared at first but after the surgery I didn’t regret it. Thank you Dr Okunade,very excellent Doctor.